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UN DISSERTATION

INTRODUCTION:

The primary responsibility of the Security Council according to the UN charter is to ensure global peace and stability. The permanent members of the Security Council that is USA, UK, France, Russia and China have veto power that allows them to have the final say in any international crisis or conflict and they are looked upon by other states for resolution of global conflicts and crisis. However the two major powers of the UNSC P-5 group namely United States and Russia have mostly used their right of veto to safeguard and promote their individual interests and agendas rather than enforce and uphold the UN charter. A look at the history of the global conflicts reveals that outcome of events such as Korean War, the Iraq War, The Suez canal crisis and other conflicts were significantly affected by the political aspirations and individual interests of the Security Council member nations, especially the permanent five members.

After the end of Cold War, which resulted in the defeat of the Soviet Union at the hands of the Afghan Mujahedeen and its subsequent dismemberment, the United States emerged as the sole global world power on the global politics stage. Due to its hegemonic military, political and economic might, the United States was successful in influencing the decisions taken by the Security Council in the post Cold War period. The US government bypassed the Security Council procedures and authorized use of lethal force against both Afghanistan and Iraq in its war on terror.

The recent Syrian humanitarian crisis has taken a worse than ever turn lately. The United Nations Security Council has been slow in taking action and the late efforts have been impotent to effectively improve the situation on ground. Assad’s regimes have continued their barbarian crackdown on the local population and the rebel factions also continue their assault on the government forces. The local population is greatly suffering in this game of cat and mouse. Their suffering is evident from the massive numbers of deaths, injured and displaced Syrians. This study focuses on how the asymmetric power balance in the United Nations has affected the peace process in Syria and how the hierarchical nature of the Security Council’s proceedings have had a direct impact on the local population and has hindered any concrete action to be undertaken by the member countries.

The UN Security Council primary reason of existence is to work for the peaceful and diplomatic resolution of global and regional conflicts that threaten the international peace and stability. The Security Council is one of the main organs of the United Nations which deals with numerous sensitive global issues every year. It consists of 15 member states of which 5 member states are permanent members also known as the P-5. The permanent five members enjoy the veto status. The use of veto by the permanent members has been a source of debate and controversy for a very long time. At numerous instances during the course of UN Security Council proceedings, the P-5 members have exercised their right of veto to safeguard their interests or pursue their aspirations. The most recent example being the ongoing Syrian civil war and the accompanying humanitarian crisis.

This thesis analyzes the clash of interests and gridlock among the member nations of the United Nations Security Council during major global issues and crisis. It seeks to establish and illustrate how the composition and modus operandi of the Security Council has been used to pursue the geo-political interests and aspirations of its permanent members in context of the exploitation of national interests of the member states from MENA region. This thesis seeks to study the multiplicity of geo-strategic, political, economic and military factors which has affected and hindered a concrete and quick resolution of the crisis. The primary objective of this dissertation is to demonstrate the failure of UN Security council in bringing peace to the Syrian crisis due to its internal polarization and power struggle between the permanent members.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

The liberal school of thought has different perspectives and traditions on maintaining global peace through an international organization (Fidler, 1996). The tradition of liberal thought that refers to the importance of an international organization for maintaining global peace and security is known as liberal internationalism. This school of thought is of the belief that an international organization which is bestowed with the necessary authority is a must for maintaining global peace and security.(Bellamy, 2015). This school of thought developed in the first half of the 20th century and was absent from previous studies on international relations (Bellamy, 2015). The idea of liberal internationalism is different from traditional liberal school of thought in establishing the importance of a global organization and its effect on the global political front…..