Cognitive decline in older adults and its prevention: Areview of non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies.


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This paper is focused on non-pharmacological techniques to prevent cognitive decline in older people. Now a day these techniques are considered more effective to prevent cognitive decline. All the people getting old will develop some degree of decline in cognitive function in the form of memory loss and loss in the ability to focus, the best practice to avoid this is to focus more on non-pharmacological techniques and therapies. There are different effects of this issue such as loss of short term and long term memory, decreased ability to maintain focus and confusion (Klimova et al., 2015). All these problems occur when there is cognitive decline. Many studies are conducted on this issue and all the authors have suggested different ways to prevent the cognitive decline by non-pharmacological ways in old age people. For example, Harada et. al. (2013) and Klimovaet. al. (2015) has focused on non-pharmacological techniques to tackle cognitive decline. The person starts losing his cognitive skills such as memory, ability to learn and understanding (Harada, 2013).

Moreover, several risk factors affect cognitive decline. Alzheimer’s disease can be developed as there is more risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in cognitive decline. Many countries are researching how to prevent this issue (Smith and Yaffe 2014). In spite of their multifactorial origin, many intervention studies have dedicated to single factors to affect psychological health with changeable outcomes (Craik and Salt house. 2012). Besides this, the use of non-pharmacological precautionary approaches to delay cognitive damage has been the effort of the latest research (Reichmann, Fiocco and Rose. 2010).Nurses can play a vital role in the prevention of cognitive decline because they can assist the patients and provide information about non-pharmacological ways to fight cognitive decline. Moreover, a whole process of nursing care is explained in the studies (Di Santo et al., 2019).

This study is conducted to discuss the evidence supporting the use of physical and cognitive activity to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Cognitive decline is increasing as the people are not getting the proper diet, they do not sleep at a time and wake up late in the morning. People are not aware of exercise and other physical activities that could help them to prevent cognitive decline. Nurses can play their role to spread awareness about this issue and help people to know more about the prevention and therapies. The data is collected from four databases; PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Embase. The study finds that non-pharmacological activities such as aerobic exercise, music therapy, solving puzzles like crosswords and Mediterranean diet can prevent cognitive decline. All these non-pharmacological lifestyles can help a person prevent this issue. Fifteen articles are taken which are published in the last ten years. The articles contain both descriptive and experimental research designs. The following are some keywords used in this study; Cognitive and aging, cognitive decline/impairment, prevention of aging illness, healthy older individuals, intervention and benefits, cognitive and music, cognitive decline and physical activities.

Cognition and lifestyle

To find an effective way of dealing with cognitive decline is a matter of discussion which is not resolved completely till now. But the study found that physical activity and eating healthy food is a way to deal with cognitive decline. The study highlighted that lifestyle can be maintained in a way that is good for brain health. It also showed how the patients can improve their lifestyle to deal with the cognitive decline; the issue should be addressed at the early age of a person in his adulthood. This can be a better way to prevent cognitive decline. It explains that a better education level is a strong factor for better cognitive conditions. The study is quantitative and they made groups of old age people to conduct an experiment, they allowed old age people to carry out everyday life experiences despite cognitive decline (Zeng et al., 2017)……………………………………….continued