Literature Review

Cognitive decline in older adults and its prevention: A review of non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies.


This article consists of 8 pages and 1914 words.
In order to get full access to this article, please email us at



This paper is focused on the non-pharmacological techniques to prevent cognitive issues in older people, now a days these techniques are considered more than the traditional one. Because the cognitive issue is present in old age people and the best practice to avoid this is to focus more on non-pharmacological techniques and therapies. There are different effects of this issue such as memory loss, the speed of processing the things and less focused people (Klimova et al., 2015). All these problems occur when there is cognitive decline. The person starts losing his cognitive skills (Harada, 2013). Many studies are conducted on this issue and all the authors have suggested different ways to prevent the cognitive decline by non-pharmacological ways in old age people.

Moreover there are several risk factors which have an effect on cognitive decline. The Alzheimer’s disease can be developed in the old age people and many countries are doing research on how to prevent this issue. While clinical evidence currently lacks solid evidence that shows that clinical syndrome depression can be prevented from focusing on strategies (Smith and Yaffe 2014). Etiology is considered to be of multifactorial origin and treatment chances are lacking. In spite of their multifactorial origin, many intervention studies have dedicated on single factors to effect psychological health with changeable outcomes(Craik and Salt house. 2012).

In addition, the use of non-pharmacological precautionary approaches to delay cognitive damage has been the effort of latest research (Reichmann, Fiocco and Rose. 2010).

Nurses can play a vital role in the prevention of cognitive decline because they can assist the patients about the measures and provide information about the non-pharmacological ways of how to prevent cognitive decline. The nurses can help them in therapies and providing them the best diet plan to overcome this issue. Moreover, a whole process of nursing care is explained in the studies (Di Santo et al., 2019).

This study is conducted to review the non-pharmacological ways to prevent the cognitive decline in old age people. Cognitive decline is increasing as the people are not getting the proper diet, they do not sleep at time and wake up late in the morning. People are not aware of exercise and other physical activities that could help them to prevent cognitive decline. Nurses can play their role to spread awareness about this issue and help people to know more about the prevention and therapies. The data is collected from four databases; PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Embase. The study finds that the non-pharmacological activities such as aerobic exercise, music therapy, solving puzzles like crosswords and Mediterranean diet can prevent cognitive decline. All these non-pharmacological lifestyles can help a person prevent this issue. Fifteen articles are taken which are published in the last ten years. The articles contain both descriptive and experimental research design. Following are some keywords used in this study; Cognitive and ageing, cognitive decline/impairment, prevention of ageing illness, healthy older individuals, intervention and benefits, cognitive and music, cognitive decline and physical activities.

Cognition and lifestyle:

To find an effective way of dealing cognitive decline is a matter of discussion which is not resolved completely till now. But this is proved that physical activity and eating healthy food is a way to deal the cognitive decline. The old age people can take care of their brain health by engaging in any physical activity in their daily life. The study highlighted that the lifestyle can be maintained in a way which is good for brain health. It also showed how the patients can improve their lifestyle to deal with the cognitive decline, the issue should be addressed in the early age of a person. This can be a better way to prevent cognitive decline with ageing (Phillips, 2017).These findings are further proved to be true in a Chinese study which explains that better education level is a strong factor for better cognitive condition. The study was quantitative and they made groups of old age people to do experiment of the daily living in spite of the decline in cognitive function (Zeng et al., 2017).

Another study reveals that cognitive declining is associated with the retirement of job, mostly people who get the retirement for health reasons are facing the cognitive decline. The person starts to lose his memory and ultimately this become the decline of cognitive function (Denier, 2016)……………………continued